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  • Rescue (बचाव कार्य)
  • Relief ( राहत )
  • Rehabilitation( पुनर्वास )

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Home > Key Concept > What is Disaster ?

A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensibly defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that disasters can cause damage to life, property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.

In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions.

The Disaster Management Cell of Shantikunj classifies disasters into two classes – (1) Permanent Disaster. (2) Temporary Disaster

The word disaster is derived from Middle French desastre  and that from Old Italian disastro, which in turn comes from the Greek pejorative prefix δυσ-, (dus-) "bad" + ἀστήρ (aster), "star". The root of the word disaster ("bad star" in Greek) comes from an astrological theme in which the ancients used to refer to the destruction or deconstruction of a star as a disaster.
Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, and for more than forty years disaster research. The studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate disaster management measures.[6] Hazards are routinely divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding.

A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans and/or the built environment. Human vulnerability and lack of appropriate emergency management leads to financial, environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability.

Various phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. However, natural hazards can strike in unpopulated areas and never develop into disasters. However, the rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration often in hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of natural disasters. With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth proliferation, non-engineered constructions which make the disaster-prone areas more vulnerable, tardy communication, poor or no budgetary allocation for disaster prevention, developing countries suffer more or less chronically by natural disasters. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural disasters.

Man-made disasters are the consequence of technological or human hazards. Examples include stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category. As with natural hazards, man-made hazards are events that have not happened, for instance terrorism. Man-made disasters are examples of specific cases where man-made hazards have become reality in an event.

(a) Temporary Disaster:
  • Natural Disaster: - Natural Epidemic, Flood, Earthquake, Landslides, Drought, Cyclones, etc.
  • Some great disasters that come all of a sudden creating havoc on humanity.
  • Disasters that fall as an adverse situation harming life and material on a large scale.
 (b) Permanent Disaster: 
  • Individual or Collective Impurity (अस्वच्छता)
  • Population Explosion and Health Crisis (जनसँख्या विस्फोट व स्वास्थ्य संकटबढ़ता जल संकट)
  • Environment Pollution - Crisis of growing Water Level (पर्यावरण का प्रदूषण - बढ़ता जल संकट)
  • Unemployment and  Illiteracy (बेरोज़गारी व अशिक्षा)
  • Addiction, Orthodoxy and Social Evil Customs or Malpractices (व्यसन, रूढ़िवादिता व सामजिक कुरीतियाँ)
  • Distorted perspective or Approach (युग आपदा)
  • Downfall of an Individual due to superstitions (कुसंस्कार के कारण व्यक्ति का पतन)
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